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俄殺人犯衣錦還鄉 昔日怒殺空管今廣受追捧
塔台菜鳥
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2008-02-16 23:45:47
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俄殺人犯衣錦還鄉 昔日怒殺空管今廣受追捧 羊城晚報 (2008-02-11 14:25)

  俄羅斯人維塔列‧卡羅耶夫4年前為替死於空難的妻子兒女報仇,殺死一名空管人員,被瑞士法庭判處8年監禁,去年11月獲提前釋放。

  英國《泰晤士報》10日報導,曾犯重罪的卡羅耶夫返回家鄉後,不僅沒有引來鄉人反感,反而廣受追捧,當地政府還將他推至重要官職建設部副部長。

  痛失妻兒

  卡羅耶夫現年52歲,曾是一名建築師。2002年夏,他在西班牙為一名俄羅斯富翁修建別墅。他與妻子斯韋特蘭娜約定,全家人到西班牙匯合,共同度過一個美好假期。

  斯韋特蘭娜隨後帶著他們10歲的兒子康斯坦丁、4歲女兒迪亞娜,乘坐瑞士空中導航公司客機前往西班牙。不幸的是,這架客機飛臨德國上空時,與一架貨運飛機相撞,兩架飛機上71人全部遇難。

  瑞士空難調查人員認定,當時值班的蘇黎世機場空管員彼得‧尼爾森負有重大責任:直到飛機相撞前1分鐘,他才突然發現飛機航線存在交叉。慌亂中,他向飛行員接連下達錯誤指令,最終導致空難發生。

  隨後兩年,卡羅耶夫和其他遇難者家屬為善後事宜不斷奔走,航空公司的處理態度讓他們大為不滿。卡羅耶夫說,空中導航公司企圖將空難歸咎于俄方飛行員,從而避免訴訟、推卸責任,而事故調查和法庭審判進展緩慢,航空公司對賠償問題遲遲拿不出解決方案。

  怒殺空管

  卡羅耶夫接受採訪時說,他的要求其實很簡單:希望相關負責人誠懇地為他家庭的損失承擔責任,作出道歉。他認為,那是最起碼的禮貌。

  然而,公司並沒有道歉,而是不斷要求卡羅耶夫保持耐心,同時以高額賠款作為安撫他情緒的誘餌。卡羅耶夫被激怒了,他覺得那是一種對俄羅斯人的侮辱。

  2004年2月,卡羅耶夫再次來到瑞士蘇黎世,找到空管員尼爾森的家。

他說:“我當時只想與他談談,希望聽到他的解釋,還有一聲道歉。我心情平靜地敲開他的房門。他走出屋外。我告訴他,我來自俄羅斯,希望能讓我進去。”

然而,尼爾森不僅沒有讓他進屋,反而狠狠關上房門。卡羅耶夫隨後掏出一個信封,裡面裝有他孩子的照片。尼爾森拒絕收下信封,不斷揮舞手臂,要求卡羅耶夫離開。兩人推搡之間,信封摔在地上,照片散落了一地。


(是人都不敢讓他進去吧?)
  
  目睹眼前一幕,卡羅耶夫失去了控制。“我仿佛看到尼爾森把我的孩子從棺材里扔了出來,”他說,“眼前一片黑暗……”

  卡羅耶夫說,他已記不清隨後發生的事。但他不諱言,尼爾森被他用折刀連捅數下,在救護車到來前已停止呼吸。第二天,卡羅耶夫被警方逮捕。瑞士法庭後來以謀殺罪判處他8年監禁。

  竟成“英雄”

  瑞士法庭宣判後,俄羅斯方面派出遊說團,爭取為卡羅耶夫減刑。2007年11月,瑞士最高法院決定,釋放卡羅耶夫。

  《泰晤士報》報導,返回俄羅斯的卡羅耶夫受到民眾熱烈追捧。當他抵達首都莫斯科,青年組織成員對他夾道歡迎。當他返回家鄉──俄羅斯北奧塞梯共和國首府弗拉季高加索,不少商店對他免費開放,當地媒體推選他為“2007年度人物”。

  今年1月,北奧塞梯共和國政府決定,任命卡羅耶夫為建設部副部長。《洛杉磯時報》說,卡羅耶夫聲名鵲起的勢頭似乎難以阻擋,人們甚至已忘記他曾經重罪在身。

  卡羅耶夫現仍住自己家中,他的姐姐已搬過來和他同住。卡羅耶夫每天的重要工作是拆讀來信和接待訪客。一些當地民眾認為他膽識過人、忠于家庭,是“真正的人”,不愧為“國家英雄”。

  “我不是英雄,我只是個普通人,”卡羅耶夫說,“我那麼做是為保衛孩子的尊嚴……並不在乎有人把我稱為謀殺犯。”

  不過,在俄羅斯,“卡羅耶夫熱”也遭到不少人反對。他們認為,這反映出一種俄羅斯舊式的宗族觀念,和現代主流社會的要求不符。韓墨(新華社供本報特稿 編輯:日月)

2008-02-21 11:04:22
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回覆: 俄殺人犯衣錦還鄉 昔日怒殺空管今廣受追捧
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2008-02-16 23:40:40
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The Tokyo High Court on Friday overturned a lower court's not guilty verdict and gave suspended prison terms to two air traffic controllers charged with negligence over a near collision in 2001 between two Japan Airlines jetliners over the Pacific that left 57 passengers on one of the flights injured.

Presiding Judge Masaru Suda sentenced Yasuko Momii, 39, to 18 months in prison, and Hideki Hachitani, 33, to 12 months. Both terms were suspended for three years.
Hachitani was under Momii's supervision at the Tokyo Air Traffic Control Center in Tokorozawa, Saitama Prefecture, at the time of the Jan. 31, 2001, near collision.

Judge Suda said Hachitani mixed up the flight numbers when he was giving instructions to the two planes, calling that a "rudimentary error."

"The defendants bear a heavy criminal responsibility for causing the plane to nosedive and the passengers to suffer injuries," the judge said.

JAL Flight 907, a Boeing 747 bound for Naha, Okinawa, from Tokyo, and JAL Flight 958, a DC-10 bound for Narita airport from Busan, South Korea, almost collided off Shizuoka Prefecture. The Tokyo District Court ruled in 2006 that Hachitani mistakenly instructed Flight 907, instead of Flight 958, to descend in order to avoid a collision. Flight 907 then proceeded to descend, contrary to the aircraft's traffic alert and collision avoidance system, which called for a climb, and came even closer to Flight 958, which followed the instruction on its system to descend.

Flight 907's sudden evasive dive left 57 passengers hurt.
In the March 20, 2006, decision, the district court found the two defendants not guilty, saying the near collision was caused by multiple factors.
Momii and Hachitani were the first air traffic controllers to be prosecuted for being criminally responsible for a near collision.

Prosecutors had sought 18 months imprisonment for Momii and 12 months for Hachitani. Both defendants had pleaded not guilty.

The incident left 100 passengers and crew members injured, according to a report released by the transport ministry's Aircraft and Railway Accident Commission in July 2002.

Tokyo police filed its investigative report on Momii, Hachitani and the captain of Flight 907 in May 2003, without arresting them, on suspicion of professional negligence in causing injuries to 57 of the 100 passengers.

2008-04-13 11:48:31
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回覆: 俄殺人犯衣錦還鄉 昔日怒殺空管今廣受追捧
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2009-03-04 23:17:11
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ATC的悲哀!

2009-03-06 22:26:06
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回覆: 俄殺人犯衣錦還鄉 昔日怒殺空管今廣受追捧
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2008-02-16 23:47:01
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Study finds criminal prosecution following accidents damages flight safety By David Learmount

DATE:19/03/09
SOURCE:Flight International

A new doctoral study of the criminal prosecution of pilots or air traffic controllers following aircraft accidents and incidents has concluded that they have a definite detrimental effect on flight safety, but fail to have the intended effect of deterring individuals from making mistakes.

In fact, the study found, controllers are particularly aware that successful prosecution could follow an unintentional error, and the resulting stress may even make mistakes more likely.

The study was carried out by two Cypriots, Dr Sofia Michaelides-Mateou, a professor of law at the University of Nicosia, and a Cyprus Airways Airbus A320 captain Dr Andreas Mateou, and presented at the Flight Safety Foundation's European Aviation Safety Seminar in Nicosia on 18 March.

Meanwhile, a criminal prosecution of individuals associated with the now-defunct Cypriot carrier Helios Airways as a result of the August 2005 fatal crash of one of its Boeing 737s is about to begin in the Cyprus courts in the next two weeks.

The Cyprus court case is coincidental to the study, because the study's purpose was to determine, generically, the positive or negative effects on flight safety of proceeding with criminal prosecutions against those involved in aviation accidents.

All on board the Helios aircraft died, so the pilots cannot be prosecuted, but other Helios employees and contractors, including engineers, have been charged to appear before the Cyprus courts, and may yet be called to appear also before courts in Greece, where the crash occurred at the end of a flight from Larnaca, Cyprus.

As well as examining former aviation accident criminal prosecutions and their judicial outcomes, the doctoral study carried out a survey of pilots and controllers to find out their perception of whether the threat of prosecution in the event of an accident had a positive effect on aviation safety, and they were almost unanimous in their opinion that it was detrimental.

There was a very small minority, says Michaelides-Mateou, that believed the threat of prosecution was an incentive not to make an error. One of the effects of the threat - or the actuality - of prosecution, the study found, is that although pilots and controllers instinctively want to provide information that will reduce the risk of an error or mishap in future, they withhold it because their own testimony may incriminate them - and their lawyers certainly advise them to take up their right to silence.

Mateou points out that, increasingly in cases all over the world, data from the technical investigation, and from the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder, is being used in its raw form as evidence in trials without the need to test its validity in law. This contravenes Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention, but it is happening, he points out. The result of this "intermingling" of raw data with legal evidence leads to pilots and controllers being advised to maintain their right to silence even in front of the technical accident investigators, explains Michaelides-Mateou.

The FSF, Eurocontrol and the European Regions Airline Association, which are joint partners in staging the safety seminar at which the doctoral study was presented, have publicly expressed concern for many years on the detrimental effect that the threat of the criminal prosecution of unintentional human error has on the voluntary reporting of incidents.

2009-03-20 00:09:13
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2008-02-21 13:04:29
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Contact: Sally Garneski
pressinquiry@facs.org
312-202-5409
Weber Shandwick Worldwide

Study finds air traffic control tracking method reduces errors in trauma management
CHICAGO (June 11, 2009) – New research published in the June issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons shows that a method used by air traffic controllers tracks patient data more effectively and with fewer errors compared with current hospital methods, primarily the use of clipboards.

Currently there is no standard practice for tracking the movement of patients from emergency rooms to the radiology suite, operating rooms, the intensive care unit, inpatient rooms or the discharge area. In addition, basic errors – such as misidentifying which extremity needs to be amputated – have resulted in increased mortality that could be prevented with basic safety measures. Both of these situations underscore the fact that patient safety has become a more visible vulnerability of modern medicine.

Air traffic controllers use a method in which each aircraft is represented by a flight progress strip. Multiple strips are stacked in order of priority within a bay representing a unique stage of flight. Reprioritization regularly occurs for faster aircraft or those that require expedited throughput for emergency or other reasons such as low fuel or weather. Flight progress strips are moved from bay to bay as aircraft move from one stage of flight to another.

"For decades, air traffic controllers have managed the complexities of airspace and aircraft handoff with a simple, manual method that has evolved to an efficient and nearly flawless system," says Jason D. Hoskins, MA, of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) in Maryland. "Our study successfully demonstrated that this method translates to trauma management, and results in increased accuracy and awareness of patient recording, tracking and throughput management. We are currently in discussions to test a more mature version of the system in clinic."

Researchers compared the air traffic control model and the traditional casualty tracking method of paper and clipboard in 18 four-hour casualty scenarios with six groups of senior medical students, each with five to 30 mock casualties as part of training session at the Emergency Medical Support Level II facility at USUHS. The experimental control groups were alternated to maximize exposure and minimize training effects. Results were compiled into performance indices for each scenario, ranging from 0 to 100 percent to represent the number of information items recorded correctly, divided by the number of information items sampled in the scenario.

When compared with the control group, the air traffic control method had fewer errors than the traditional method in critical patient data (99 percent correct versus 87 percent correct, p=0.017). Additionally, the air traffic control method better tracked mechanism of injury (100 percent versus 88 percent, p=0.004), working diagnosis (100 percent versus 93 percent, p=0.045) and disposition of patients through hospital (100 percent versus 93 percent, p=0.009).

The air traffic control method did not significantly vary from the traditional method in recording name, social security number or patient location, or in determining total number of casualties (both were 92 percent). However, the air traffic control method was able to track where patients were at given times, even after each scenario was finished.

By keeping data in "air traffic control" bays, information was available in one location as opposed to on a roving clipboard. This system provided hospital administrators with knowledge of current hospital capacity and throughput efficiency so that resources could be redirected in real time and a dynamic re-triage process could be maintained.

Post-scenario surveys were provided to key student leadership positions after each cycle. Responders (n=75) preferred the data bays to standard clipboard tracking by a ratio of nearly 3:1 (p = 0.003).


###

About the American College of Surgeons

The American College of Surgeons is a scientific and educational organization of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to raise the standards of surgical practice and to improve the care of the surgical patient. The College is dedicated to the ethical and competent practice of surgery. Its achievements have significantly influenced the course of scientific surgery in America and have established it as an important advocate for all surgical patients. The College has more than 74,000 members and is the largest organization of surgeons in the world. For more information, visit www.facs.org.

2009-06-12 11:03:32
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